Beyond technology: A comparative literature review of campaign context and issues in three countries
Thomas Chukwuma Ijere 
Dodeye Uduak Williams 
|Abstract: Since Barack Obama’s campaign of 2008 and 2012, contemporary discourse and analysis of modern political communication have been variously and increasingly preoccupied with the analysis of the power of new technology-digital media platforms and algorithms as both the main ingredients and infrastructure for modern campaigns and electioneering. However, as important as these mediated tools and platforms have become, we argue that focus on context, ideas, issues, and campaign rhetoric is equally essential in making sense of factors that contribute in shaping and destabilizing elections and democracy. Drawing from an extensive review of campaign related literature in three countries and a constant comparative method of reading the literature, we illustrate such contextual issues, ideas and campaign rhetoric using examples from America, Britain and Nigeria. In all three examples, the literature reviewed highlight that context – i.e. socio-economic, cultural and political all compete to incentivizes and stimulate the formation of ideas and issues that dominate campaign and election cycles.
Keywords: Elections; Ideas; Issues and Context;
 Center for Advanced Internet Studies, Bochum-Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org.
 Department of Political Science, University of Calabar, Calabar-Nigeria, email@example.com.